CFSG APAC – Mining geostatistics essentials in four weeks | Training course

Learn the fundamentals of mining geostatistics for resource estimation and build your first block model. Learn how to improve estimation using multivariate geostatistics. Get insights into geostatistical simulations.


The CFSG APAC program is derived from the more extensive CFSG program, the Specialized Training Cycle in Geostatistics, delivered by the Geostatistics Team from Mines Paris and Geovariances. Its objective is to give you a comprehensive and deep knowledge of geostatistics for mineral resource estimation so that, when you return to work, you can build the block models your company needs for confident mine planning. By attending the program, you learn the theory behind the techniques presented and practice them through numerous exercises and a real-life project.

This APAC session is specifically designed for those living or working in Asia-Pacific, with course times aligned with the different time zones in the area. It is delivered online from November 6 to December 1, 2023. At the end of these four weeks, you will be able to analyze and model the spatial variability of grades, build your first block model through various techniques, integrate secondary grades’ information in the estimation process to improve the accuracy of block models, and compute grade-tonnage curves.


  • Half of the training program is devoted to methodological presentations, the other half to practical exercises to deepen the understanding of concepts.
    – The methodological courses are given by Mines Paris professors and are scheduled to match the audience’s time zone.
    – Geovariances consultants will drive the practical sessions from our Australian office.
    – For more convenience, these courses are recorded and made available to participants during the session and until one month after the end of the course.
  • A typical training week would then be:
    Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thursday: theoretical course (on a half-day) and hands-on practice with Isatis.neo Mining Edition (on the half-day following the theoretical course).
    – Friday: homework using Isatis.neo Mining Edition with compulsory rendering at the end of the day. Live corrections and comments from the teaching team. Validation of prior learning.
  • CFSG is a full-time training. You are required to be present/connected for the duration of the sessions.
  • CFSG is a certification training. The knowledge acquired is validated through an examination. At the end of the course, you will get a training certificate with a distinction that officially recognizes the full completion of the training.
  • Course material and a temporary software license are provided.
  • A minimum number of 5 participants is required for a module actually to take place.

Who should attend

The CFSG training program is meant for mining geologists and engineers willing to achieve a high level of geostatistics.




  • The different types of quantities
    Quantitative (i.e., grade or petrophysical properties) or categorical (i.e., geological facies and rock types)
    Missing information, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ)
    Additive variables
    Variables defined on a space (i.e., drillholes, maps, and block models)
    Support of information (size and shape) and volume of selection (i.e., Selective Mining Unit)
  • Univariate statistics
    – Histograms
    – Summary statistics:  mean, median, mode to capture the centrality, variance, inter-quartile interval, coefficient of variation to capture the dispersion, minimum, maximum, quantiles, box plots to capture the extremes
    – Base maps and swath plots
    – Transform of the variable: logarithm, log, indicator, capping, ranking, proportional effect
    – Continuous and discrete distributions: Gaussian, lognormal, uniform, triangular, exponential, gamma, Bernoulli, Binomial, Poisson
  • Multivariate statistics
    – Scatter plots
    – Marginal and conditional distributions
    – Linear and empirical regression
    – Transformations (linear combinations, i.e., Principal Component Analysis)
  • Selectivity curves
    – Rules for selection: cutoff and support (sample vs. Selective Mining Unit)
    – Tonnage, Average Grade, Metal, and Conventional benefit
    – Support effect
    – Information effect


Introduction to Isatis.neo Mining Edition to learn how to manage a project and various types of data sets. You will learn how to manage the statistical concept presented in theory in the software.




  • Sampling for spatialized variables
    – Clustered and preferential sampling
    – Sampling geometry: scattered, seismic lines, drill holes, regular grids
    – Declustering and weighted statistics
  • Measuring the spatial continuity
    – Spatial covariance and variograms
    – Variogram cloud, variogram map
    – Calculations in one, two, and three-dimensional spaces. The particular case of regular, gridded data.
    – Other empirical structural tools: robust variogram, madogram, rodogram
  • Variogram model
    – The basic models: Nugget Effect, Exponential, Spherical, Gaussian, Cubic, Linear
    – Parameters and properties
    – The nested model and its multi-scale interpretation
    – Anisotropies: geometric, zonal, separable
    – Fitting strategy


Several exercises to learn to import data, achieve exploratory data analysis, compute experimental variograms, and adjust variogram models with Isatis.neo Mining Edition.




  • Estimator
    – Examples: Moving Mean, Nearest Neighbor, Inverse Distances
    – Precision vs. accuracy
    – Dichotomy between (deterministic) Drift and (stochastic) Residuals: (strictly) stationary, intrinsic, or non-stationary
    – Linear, Unbiased, Optimal
    – Estimation and quality of estimation (estimation error)
  • Kriging (Best Linear Unbiased Estimation)
    – Simple Kriging with known mean
    – Ordinary Kriging in intrinsic cases
    – Universal Kriging in more general cases
  • Parameters
    – The Variogram Model
    – The Neighborhood: Moving vs. Global
  • Properties of kriging
    – Support of the sample (different sizes)
    – Support of the target: block, convolution, gradient
  • Cross-validation (leave-one-out, K-fold) and Kriging validation
  • Extensions: Kriging with Variance of Measurement Errors, Filtering


Several exercises to learn to build block models with Isatis.neo Mining Edition using Ordinary and Simple Kriging and to validate the model with cross-validation.




  • Multivariate modeling
    Experimental statistics: scatter plots, correlation table, regressions (linear and non-linear)
    – Transforms: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Multiple Factor Analysis (MAF), Indicator Residuals
    – Simple and cross variograms
    – Modeling: Linear Model of Coregionalization
  • Multivariate estimation
    – Cokriging: Simple and Ordinary. Simplifications
    – Collocated Co-kriging
    – Factorial Kriging Analysis
  • Selectivity curves for recoverable resources
    – Reminders:
    . Rules for selection: cutoff and support (sample vs. Selective Mining Unit)
    . Tonnage, Average Grade, Metal, and Conventional Benefit
    . Support effect of the variable
    . Information effect
    – Limitations of Linear Kriging
    – Non-linear estimation vs. simulations
  • Gaussian Simulations
    – Why resort to the Gaussian Model?
    – Transform from Raw to Gaussian quantities: Normal score and Anamorphosis
    – Properties (univariate, multivariate), covariance function
    – Simulation techniques: Sequential Gaussian Simulations, Turning Bands Simulations, Conditioning Kriging


Several exercises to learn how to analyze contacts between domains, compute and adjust multivariate variograms, and run point and block simulations,  Direct Block Simulations, and post-processing (statistics, simulation reduction, grade-tonnage curves) with Isatis.neo Mining Edition.


This course is ideal for newcomers to mining geostatistics.

The course is delivered in English and requires a good level of this language. Sound notions of mathematics are also recommended.

As the course is online, a good quality internet connection is required. We also appreciate that the participant’s camera is turned on for the session.​